Making decisions in relation to excavation is an exciting and sometimes very difficult process, because even with pre-excavation information as a guide, it is very hard to say exactly what will be found. There will always be an element of calculated risk in archaeological decisions. An excavation site needs to be selected, a budget raised to pay for the project, individual archaeologists or an entire organisation may need to be employed to carry out the work. Objectives and standards need to be set and a timetable agreed. On some sites, such as research excavations carried out by people working in their own time for their own archaeological interests, there may be plenty of flexibility. On others, particularly development sites where ‘rescue’ archaeologists are working in advance of building or quarrying activity, the available time and money may be very constrained.